Mining is doubtless considered one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to these prehistoric days when someone grabbed a digging instrument and began burrowing into the ground. In the various millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most essential and widespread commercial enterprises, with operations spread across the globe while tasked with recovering an virtually inexhaustible list of priceless commodities.
In fact, in accordance with the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined products have been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian nations accounted for 58 % of the 2018 manufacturing, with North America second at 15.1 percent, adopted by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.8 percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) were the most prolific producers, with their total 51.1 % of manufacturing more than the remainder of the world combined.
This means that the mining business is a robust one, with strong growth anticipated to proceed in the coming years in many areas of the world. It also means that mining operations will proceed to depend on pumping applied sciences that offer sturdy, reliable, and protected service in a quantity of important liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why constructive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps can be the only option for many of those applications.
While mining may seem like nothing more than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy machinery or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many complicated and typically delicate operations that have to be carried out properly if the mining operation is to perform at its highest level of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping expertise that can function reliably in harsh and distant areas, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive merchandise, and in addition one which is ready to be maintained and repaired simply so downtime is lessened. The pumps should also be light sufficient to be manually moved from location to location throughout the mine itself.
For a few years, a popular alternative for use in these conditions was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are capable of create the excessive circulate charges which are required, they’ve numerous operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining functions: an inability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to prevent leaks; special linings needed to handle solids; high motor speeds of as a lot as 1,800 rpm; and comparatively excessive maintenance necessities and prices, especially when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another popular selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they have a number of operational shortcomings. These embrace an inability to persistently handle liquids with high ranges of abrasives, which leads to increased upkeep prices, wear on costly stators and rotors that may finally have to be replaced, and total larger purchase, working, and repair/replacement prices.
Here are a variety of the specific liquid-transfer operations that happen in a mine and the ways in which some pump applied sciences can fall short in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing extra produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that’s recovered is commonly filled with particulates that may be as large as 0.12 to zero.sixteen inches in measurement. If used in this software, centrifugal pumps require special materials of construction, which could be price prohibitive, to guard against impeller wear brought on by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are also not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their stage of performance in this utility.
General service: For widespread liquid-handling functions, you want an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip strains, operate at low speeds while still delivering excessive flow rates, and be easy to maintain and restore. Centrifugal pumps simply don’t possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted elements of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This sometimes calls for a necessity to make use of particular mechanical seals, which may lead to exorbitant maintenance, repair, and replacement costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to wash the liquids which would possibly be produced within the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall short on this software because the solid-laden liquid can harm the pump’s internals until special, dearer supplies of construction or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a robust discharge-pressure variation that may force the centrifugal pump to operate away from its finest efficiency point (BEP), leading to high vibration and radial hundreds that can lead to shortened service life. A answer to that is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are costly and might negatively have an effect on the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This is obtainable in all forms in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport vans with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds that are required. In every occasion, there is the danger that the pump shall be compelled to run dry as the truck or storage vessel is emptied, whereas discharge-pressure variation can even generate high vibration and radial masses. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, so that they need protection from this situation or the addition of special seals. However, all of these upgrades still can not completely shield against a catastrophic failure.
While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the best solution in many liquid-handling applications in mining, one pump technology that has confirmed to be an optimum alternative is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and upkeep, and safety for mining personnel and the setting.
AODD pumps are able to carry out effectively in mining functions as a result of their technique of operation allows them to easily handle variable move charges and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping capable, and nimble sufficient to transfer liquids which are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The easy design of the AODD pump options few shifting elements and comparably lower speeds than other pump technologies, which improves reliability and simplifies upkeep, while the pump’s seal-less development results in fewer leaks, which is a crucial consideration when handling the various hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which are prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps can be found in each metallic (most generally aluminum, ductile iron and cast iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, whereas a big selection of elastomers can be utilized within the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility concerns.
A extensive number of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that can also end in optimized efficiency at many ranges. The capacity to feature AODD pumps in a variety of purposes, from primary general use to delicate chemical-handling processes, permits operators to extra cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps may also be more value effective to function, particularly those fashions which are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most simple, AODD pumps excel in the typical rugged and harsh operating circumstances discovered in the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents along with corresponding downtime and repair prices.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years ago, has been devoted to developing technologies that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden offers three AODD pump fashions which are constructed to excel in mining purposes, out there in ductile iron, cast iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of construction:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which function a bolted configuration, have been constructed to be used in functions that require the dealing with of liquids that includes giant solids. The Brahma pumps have a novel top-inlet/bottom-discharge circulate orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that damage will occur because of product entrapment or the settling of solids throughout the pump’s inner move paths. Brahma pumps are available in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to minimize back air consumption by up to 60 p.c. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate vary for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as a lot as one hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling capability starting from 2 to 3 inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps function a clamped design with carrying handles for lightweight portability. Their design features massive internal clearances and flow-through paths for straightforward passage of large solids with no probability for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve meeting additional allows solids passage, whereas a polyurethane screen base on the inlet increases the pump’s durability. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) fashions are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps featuring the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most strong ADS design for the toughest environments. Flow charges amongst the six models vary from fifty seven gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures up to one hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that may be handled range from half to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps function clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features different chamber supplies, together with metallic and plastics, even Kynar, which is capable of handling high ranges of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT is also probably the most efficient AODD pump available within the market, able to lowering up to 60 % air consumption. This makes it the greatest option for handling corrosive and abrasive merchandise in mining processes. The pumps have a product vary that goes from 1.5 to three inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are in a place to be outfitted with a wide array of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a varying array of materials, similar to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary gives customers the widest choice of diaphragms available on the market, all of that are able to offering prolonged mean time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with reduced upkeep, repair, and alternative costs.
All of those capabilities make AODD pumps the best alternative for the aforementioned frequent liquid-handling purposes in mining: dewatering, basic service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and every day product transfer.
In abstract, Wilden AODD pumps are the finest option for mining purposes as a end result of they offer appreciable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead functionality, together with increased operational security and a discount in maintenance/repair prices that can be incurred by pumps that are not designed to handle abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps also outperform other AODD technologies in other important methods: simple design with the lowest variety of parts for quicker, simpler, and safer repairs and the lowest variety of spare elements to inventory; latest improvements in supplies of construction that enhance the pump’s MTBF; and improved effectivity via using the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which ultimately ends in quicker product transfer with decrease air consumption. เพรสเชอร์เกจไฮดรอลิค continues to innovate by way of the event of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, each of which improve service life and security while not compromising the dealing with of challenging liquids.
Fernando Meneses is the regional manager North Latin America for Wilden, a number one manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He may be reached at Wilden is a product brand of PSG®, a Dover firm. PSG is comprised of several leading pump corporations, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more data, visit or