Mining is one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots again to these prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and started burrowing into the bottom. In the many millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most important and widespread business enterprises, with operations unfold throughout the globe whereas tasked with recovering an almost inexhaustible listing of valuable commodities.
In truth, based on the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise have been recovered in 2018, up from eleven.three billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian international locations accounted for 58 p.c of the 2018 production, with North America second at 15.1 %, adopted by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.8 percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) were essentially the most prolific producers, with their whole fifty one.1 % of production more than the remainder of the world combined.
This implies that the mining industry is a strong one, with strong growth anticipated to continue in the coming years in many regions of the world. It also implies that mining operations will continue to depend on pumping technologies that offer robust, reliable, and protected service in numerous important liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why optimistic displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps can be the only option for many of these purposes.
While mining might appear to be nothing greater than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many advanced and typically delicate operations that must be carried out correctly if the mining operation is to perform at its highest degree of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping know-how that may function reliably in harsh and remote places, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive products, and in addition one that is prepared to be maintained and repaired just so downtime is lessened. The pumps should even be mild sufficient to be manually moved from location to location within the mine itself.
For many years, a well-liked alternative for use in these conditions was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are able to create the excessive circulate charges which may be required, they have a number of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining functions: an lack of ability to self-prime or run dry; particular seals wanted to stop leaks; special linings wanted to handle solids; high motor speeds of up to 1,800 rpm; and comparatively high maintenance requirements and prices, particularly when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another well-liked alternative has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they’ve a selection of operational shortcomings. These embody an lack of ability to constantly deal with liquids with high levels of abrasives, which leads to increased upkeep costs, put on on expensive stators and rotors that will finally have to be changed, and total larger purchase, working, and repair/replacement costs.
Here are a few of the particular liquid-transfer operations that take place in a mine and the ways that some pump technologies can fall brief in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is often filled with particulates that could be as giant as zero.12 to 0.16 inches in dimension. If used on this utility, centrifugal pumps require special supplies of building, which may be price prohibitive, to guard towards impeller put on caused by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are also not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their level of performance on this utility.
General service: For common liquid-handling functions, you need an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip traces, function at low speeds whereas still delivering excessive circulate charges, and be straightforward to hold up and repair. Centrifugal pumps simply don’t possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This usually calls for a need to use special mechanical seals, which can lead to exorbitant upkeep, restore, and replacement costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to wash the liquids that are produced in the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall brief in this application because the solid-laden liquid can damage the pump’s internals except particular, dearer supplies of development or linings are used. Also, the nature of press-filter operation creates a powerful discharge-pressure variation that can drive the centrifugal pump to function away from its best efficiency point (BEP), resulting in excessive vibration and radial hundreds that may lead to shortened service life. A solution to that is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, but these are costly and may negatively have an result on the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product transfer: This comes in all types in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy equipment, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which would possibly be required. In each instance, there’s the risk that the pump shall be compelled to run dry as the truck or storage vessel is emptied, whereas discharge-pressure variation also can generate excessive vibration and radial hundreds. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps cannot run dry, in order that they want safety from this condition or the addition of special seals. However, all of those upgrades still cannot totally defend in opposition to a catastrophic failure.
While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the simplest resolution in plenty of liquid-handling functions in mining, one pump know-how that has confirmed to be an optimum alternative is AODD—in phrases of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and maintenance, and security for mining personnel and the environment.
AODD pumps are in a place to carry out effectively in mining applications as a result of their method of operation allows them to simply handle variable flow charges and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble sufficient to switch liquids which may be shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The simple design of the AODD pump options few transferring elements and comparably decrease speeds than different pump applied sciences, which improves reliability and simplifies upkeep, whereas the pump’s seal-less development results in fewer leaks, which is a critical consideration when dealing with the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which are prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps can be found in both steel (most commonly aluminum, ductile iron and solid iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, whereas a wide array of elastomers can be utilized in the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility concerns.
A wide number of AODD pump configurations provide operational flexibility that may also end in optimized efficiency at many levels. The capacity to characteristic AODD pumps in a extensive range of functions, from fundamental basic use to delicate chemical-handling processes, allows operators to more cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can be less expensive to function, particularly those models that are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most simple, AODD pumps excel within the typical rugged and harsh operating conditions found in the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents along with corresponding downtime and repair costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years in the past, has been devoted to developing technologies that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden offers three AODD pump models which might be constructed to excel in mining applications, available in ductile iron, cast iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of construction:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which feature a bolted configuration, have been built to be used in functions that require the handling of liquids featuring massive solids. The Brahma pumps have a singular top-inlet/bottom-discharge flow orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that injury will occur as a result of product entrapment or the settling of solids throughout the pump’s internal flow paths. Brahma pumps can be found in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce back air consumption by as much as 60 %. The T810 and T1510 fashions are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate range for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures up to one hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling functionality starting from 2 to three inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps function a clamped design with carrying handles for light-weight portability. Their design options massive inner clearances and flow-through paths for simple passage of huge solids with no likelihood for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve meeting additional permits solids passage, whereas a polyurethane screen base on the inlet increases the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps that includes the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most sturdy ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow rates amongst the six fashions vary from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures as a lot as one hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that can be handled vary from half to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps characteristic clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features totally different chamber materials, together with steel and plastics, even Kynar, which is capable of dealing with high levels of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT is also essentially the most environment friendly AODD pump available in the market, able to decreasing up to 60 % air consumption. This makes it the best choice for dealing with corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to three inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are capable of be outfitted with a wide selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a various array of materials, similar to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary gives customers the widest selection of diaphragms available on the market, all of which are able to offering prolonged imply time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with lowered maintenance, repair, and replacement prices.
All of these capabilities make AODD pumps the best alternative for the aforementioned common liquid-handling applications in mining: dewatering, common service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and daily product transfer.
In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the most suitable choice for mining purposes as a outcome of they offer considerable operational benefits, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead functionality, along with elevated operational safety and a reduction in maintenance/repair prices that could be incurred by pumps that aren’t designed to handle abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps also outperform different AODD applied sciences in different vital ways: simple design with the lowest variety of parts for quicker, simpler, and safer repairs and the lowest variety of spare elements to stock; recent enhancements in supplies of building that increase the pump’s MTBF; and improved efficiency through the utilization of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which finally ends in faster product transfer with lower air consumption. Wilden additionally continues to innovate through the event of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, both of which enhance service life and security while not compromising the handling of difficult liquids.
Fernando Meneses is the regional manager North Latin America for Wilden, a leading manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He could be reached at compound gauge ราคา is a product model of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of a number of main pump companies, together with Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more data, go to or