บทความ เกจวัดแรงดัน

KSB – open pit dewatering in mining calls for sturdy, reliable and efficient pumps

Water is current everywhere in mining and its control varies according to its role in the mining processes. In a recent in-depth article by pumps major KSB, the corporate outlines how this in flip influences the choice of applied sciences utilized in pumping water. “Alongside the secure supply and restoration of process water is the challenge of eradicating floor water. Process water and groundwater include abrasive and corrosive elements in varying portions which have an adverse have an result on on pump performance and life. Working conditions, remote areas, varying temperature ranges and the dearth of electrical power are additionally extremely influential components.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia may be many thousands of miles apart, however these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the safe disposal of doubtless contaminated water. “The identical can be said of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What they all have in widespread is a requirement for environment friendly and effective water and slurry pumps. Well-matched solutions help to maximize the longevity and effectivity of the system and likewise optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The altering face of mining
The seek for extra uncommon and precious minerals and metals has opened up mining in international locations and places the place previously the business was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining companies and gear producers have had to develop new techniques and merchandise. And with the main mining firms having operations in many international locations, becoming a most well-liked gear provider is important. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX perspective to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” reviews Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the big mines that realize that poorly designed tools that frequently fails, causes a significant improve in alternative and servicing price. Some mining companies are actually committing to a carbon neutral target in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on high efficiency tools. They want to phase out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their local electrical grid.”
KSB says it is aware that mining corporations are recording pump performance and are accumulating data to check manufacturers and better rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is good news for KSB as the company is dedicated to delivering high reliability and efficiency pumps, so helping to scale back the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the answer to it is a resounding ‘no’, but “by sharing experiences between offices and also regularly working with the identical worldwide mining firms, KSB has been in a place to develop applicable solutions. KSB’s involvement in the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia show two totally different approaches to dewatering, both using vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines extreme floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To preserve steady manufacturing water must be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water level that should be raised two or thrice a 12 months. KSB Brazil’s solution is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with adjustments in the water stage so there is no want for the pumps to be repositioned. This ends in cost-savings to the shopper. After 20 profitable years it has turn out to be the standard for this type of equipment in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the flow fee requested by the shopper,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high power motors and associated equipment ends in the size of the floating station being elevated. Stabilizing tools that weighs more than 200 t requires a lot of planning, in addition to the challenge of building a system in such a remote space.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in a quantity of places around the Chichester hub zone, an area between 5 and 9 km extensive and eighty km long. The mineral deposit sits between ninety m and 117 m under the surface. With the groundwater and water desk regularly replenished in wet seasons and cyclones including to the inundation, more than 75% of the iron ore is beneath the water desk. If an extreme amount of water mixes with iron ore, it turns into low grade and unsuitable for export, which outcomes in massive income losses. Also, floor dewatering processes are extremely expensive if the water may be very high.
The accepted dewatering course of within the area is to pump the water out by way of boreholes. However, this is not without its challenges. High water temperatures and excessive salinity lead to extreme corrosion, whilst iron micro organism can grow on motors which prevent environment friendly motor cooling. The presence of fuel is a continuing menace in some areas as this causes gas lock on the impellers resulting in heavy vibrations, which places an excellent pressure on the motor, lack of move fee and motor failure.
This implies that standard off-the-shelf products are not all the time appropriate and the incidence of failures is high. Typically, most bore pumps fail inside 12 months, and sometimes just a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB provides mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to face up to web site conditions. Although a dearer product than its opponents, the UPA has been proven to deliver a significantly longer working life and decreased prices of possession. KSB’s proprietary expertise that inhibits the growth of iron micro organism makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the setting and minerals being mined require revolutionary approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, home to a quantity of open cut and underground copper mines rainy seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering several totally different pumping options involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To forestall mining operations from being shut down, a fast localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our resolution has been to produce Omega pumps mounted on rough terrain trailers. We supply a whole package deal made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary tools together with vacuum pump, control panels, displays etc that delivers high head pumping.”
A related answer can be supplied for the open cast Moatize coal mine in Mozambique the place the water ranges should remain low for continuous manufacturing reliability. Whilst borehole pumps provide good reliability on a relentless foundation, when the rainy season starts, more resources are in demand KSB SA provides skid-mounted Omega items. To date, KSB SA has provided 152 units and all are working reliably.
Latin America
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a continuing drawback. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates stable particles so the high strain encapsulated UPA borehole pumps should be wear-resistant for long run effectivity. Because the dewatering pumps work at a excessive pace, the impellers and the wear ring can undergo from premature wear. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 normal chrome coating, put on is significantly minimised. “We have had pumps working on this mine for over two years without the impellers being changed,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is a solution that no competitor provides, and provides worth for the customer by way of lowered maintenance, spare parts and larger mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and four,500 m. Remote sites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy needed to drive high capacity pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and result in environmental pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our prospects require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that can be moved with the enlargement of the open pit,” comments Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The solution is to use horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a special configuration for sand filters encased in a stress shroud. This gives the client flexibility and flexibility as a outcome of the tools is compact, develops excessive pressures and is simple to maneuver across the website.
To accommodate increasing flows and discharge strain pumps are configured in collection and in parallel particularly for the client’s necessities. Being coupled to diesel engines allows continuous, autonomous operation in locations without electrical energy for between 12 and 24 hours without refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps put in on a raft enabling them to deal with the accumulation of water contained in the mine, eliminating factors corresponding to negative suction head at high altitudes. KSB gear for mine drainage is equipped in standard variations, with variations for rafts or nicely pumps put in in pressure jackets. Having viable solutions for dewatering adds worth to the shoppers operations and can be important because every year minerals are discovered at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is among the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and also a significant player in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for his or her outstanding capability to carry out in severe open pit mine websites. Its development of dewatering and dredge pump sets (DnD), as a solution for mining purposes, especially for open-pit mine websites is one instance of KSB’ dedication to steady product improvement and growth. To date, more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been installed in mines across Indonesia and South East Asia. In เกจวัดแรงดันแก๊สหุงต้ม , KSB Indonesia launched a brand new mannequin, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by customers.
KSB builds the whole diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, full with gas tank, vacuum pump, control panel and so on, and ships them on trailers for easy commissioning at web site. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can additionally be a seasonal activity and this implies pumps can stand idle for a quantity of months during the dry intervals. Recognising this case, KSB has introduced a rental programme, whereby the pumps are supplied fully-kitted out according to the customer’s necessities. By not having to buy the pump units, customers are relieved of the prices of ownership and know that after they require units they come prepared for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering techniques enable the safe and environment friendly decreasing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage applications. Regardless of a mine’s location, the kind of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid dealing with technologies that will fit all eventualities. This situation has come about by way of the cross-fertilisation of concepts, technologies and experiences gained over many many years by our companies all over the world, supported by extensive funding in research and improvement. Wherever a pumping resolution is required, we will convey a co-ordinated response to the desk.

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