Water is present everywhere in mining and its management varies based on its function in the mining processes. In a latest in-depth article by pumps main KSB, the corporate outlines how this in flip influences the selection of applied sciences used in pumping water. “Alongside the secure supply and restoration of course of water is the problem of removing floor water. Process water and groundwater contain abrasive and corrosive parts in various portions which have an antagonistic affect on pump performance and life. Working conditions, distant places, varying temperature ranges and the lack of electrical energy are additionally highly influential factors.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia may be many thousands of miles aside, however these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the secure disposal of potentially contaminated water. “The same may be mentioned of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What they all have in widespread is a requirement for efficient and efficient water and slurry pumps. Well-matched options help to maximize the longevity and effectivity of the system and likewise optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The changing face of mining
The search for more rare and treasured minerals and metals has opened up mining in international locations and places the place previously the business was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining firms and tools manufacturers have had to develop new strategies and products. And with the most important mining firms having operations in many international places, becoming a most well-liked gear supplier is important. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX perspective to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” reviews Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the massive mines that realize that poorly designed gear that frequently fails, causes a big increase in replacement and servicing value. Some mining firms at the moment are committing to a carbon impartial target in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on excessive effectivity tools. They need to phase out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their native electrical grid.”
KSB says it’s aware that mining corporations are recording pump efficiency and are accumulating knowledge to match brands and better rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is good news for KSB as the company is committed to delivering high reliability and effectivity pumps, so helping to scale back the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the answer to it is a resounding ‘no’, however “by sharing experiences between workplaces and also regularly working with the same worldwide mining companies, KSB has been in a position to develop acceptable solutions. KSB’s involvement within the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia show two completely different approaches to dewatering, each employing vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines excessive floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To maintain steady manufacturing water must be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water stage that should be raised two or thrice a yr. KSB Brazil’s resolution is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with changes in the water stage so there is not any need for the pumps to be repositioned. This results in cost-savings to the client. After 20 profitable years it has become the standard for this kind of tools in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the flow fee requested by the customer,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, excessive energy motors and associated gear leads to the scale of the floating station being elevated. Stabilizing tools that weighs more than 200 t requires plenty of planning, along with the problem of building a system in such a remote space.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in several places across the Chichester hub zone, an area between 5 and 9 km wide and eighty km lengthy. The mineral deposit sits between ninety m and 117 m below the surface. With the groundwater and water desk regularly replenished in moist seasons and cyclones adding to the inundation, more than 75% of the iron ore is beneath the water desk. If too much water mixes with iron ore, it turns into low grade and unsuitable for export, which leads to huge revenue losses. Also, surface dewatering processes are extraordinarily pricey if the water may be very high.
The accepted dewatering course of inside the region is to pump the water out via boreholes. However, this is not with out its challenges. High water temperatures and high salinity end in excessive corrosion, while iron bacteria can develop on motors which forestall efficient motor cooling. The presence of gas is a constant threat in some areas as this causes gas lock on the impellers leading to heavy vibrations, which locations an excellent pressure on the motor, loss of move price and motor failure.
This means that normal off-the-shelf products are not always appropriate and the incidence of failures is high. Typically, most bore pumps fail inside 12 months, and generally just a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB provides mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to withstand website circumstances. Although a dearer product than its competitors, the UPA has been proven to ship a significantly longer working life and reduced costs of possession. KSB’s proprietary expertise that inhibits the expansion of iron bacteria makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the environment and minerals being mined require innovative approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, residence to a quantity of open reduce and underground copper mines rainy seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering several completely different pumping solutions involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To prevent mining operations from being shut down, a fast localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our resolution has been to supply Omega pumps mounted on tough terrain trailers. We supply a complete bundle made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary equipment including vacuum pump, management panels, displays and so on that delivers excessive head pumping.”
A comparable answer is also offered for the open forged Moatize coal mine in Mozambique the place the water ranges must stay low for continuous production reliability. Whilst borehole pumps provide good reliability on a constant foundation, when the rainy season begins, more resources are in demand KSB SA provides skid-mounted Omega models. To date, KSB SA has equipped 152 models and all are working reliably.
Latin America
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a continuing downside. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates solid particles so the excessive pressure encapsulated UPA borehole pumps should be wear-resistant for long term effectivity. Because the dewatering pumps work at a excessive speed, the impellers and the wear ring can endure from premature put on. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 commonplace chrome coating, put on is significantly minimised. “We have had pumps working on this mine for over two years with out the impellers being modified,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is an answer that no competitor offers, and adds worth for the customer by way of decreased maintenance, spare parts and higher mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and four,500 m. Remote sites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy wanted to drive high capability pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental air pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our customers require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that might be moved with the enlargement of the open pit,” comments Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The answer is to make use of horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a special configuration for sand filters encased in a stress shroud. This offers the client flexibility and flexibility as a outcome of the gear is compact, develops excessive pressures and is straightforward to maneuver across the web site.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge pressure pumps are configured in sequence and in parallel specifically for the client’s necessities. Being coupled to diesel engines permits continuous, autonomous operation in places with out electricity for between 12 and 24 hours without refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps installed on a raft enabling them to handle the accumulation of water contained in the mine, eliminating factors corresponding to negative suction head at excessive altitudes. KSB gear for mine drainage is provided in standard variations, with variations for rafts or well pumps put in in strain jackets. Having viable options for dewatering provides value to the purchasers operations and can be necessary as a result of each year minerals are found at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is among the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and in addition a major player in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for his or her excellent capacity to carry out in severe open pit mine sites. Its development of dewatering and dredge pump sets (DnD), as an answer for mining applications, particularly for open-pit mine websites is one instance of KSB’ dedication to continuous product improvement and improvement. To pressure gauge ด้าน ดูด , more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been put in in mines throughout Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a new mannequin, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by customers.
KSB builds the entire diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, full with gas tank, vacuum pump, management panel and so on, and ships them on trailers for easy commissioning at website. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can be a seasonal activity and this implies pumps can stand idle for several months during the dry periods. Recognising this example, KSB has introduced a rental programme, whereby the pumps are supplied fully-kitted out according to the customer’s necessities. By not having to purchase the pump sets, clients are relieved of the prices of ownership and know that once they require models they come prepared for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering systems enable the secure and environment friendly decreasing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage applications. Regardless of a mine’s location, the type of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid dealing with technologies that may match all eventualities. This scenario has come about through the cross-fertilisation of concepts, applied sciences and experiences gained over many decades by our companies around the globe, supported by intensive investment in analysis and growth. Wherever a pumping answer is required, we will convey a co-ordinated response to the table.